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Critical aspects of Sustainability in Tall Building Design

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Key Drivers

Key drivers, for maximizing cost efficiency which should be considered in the design of a high rise building, are:

• Cores and risers

Maximizing Net to Gross floor areas requires that the building core is minimised as far

as possible. The vertical distribution of building services systems throughout a building has large impacts upon this factor.

• Plant Strategy

When looking at the spatial efficiency, it is the link between vertical distribution and plant floor locations which becomes the key. In general increasing the number of floors between technical plant spaces will increase the size of distribution risers. This is because the services running through the risers at each floor level are required to serve a greater number of floors. Defining a plant distribution strategy therefore becomes a balance between how much floor area is lost to become technical plant space and how much of each occupied floor level is lost to the risers required for services.

• System hydraulics

Another major factor in the location of plant floors is the high static pressures that can occur in water pipe work distribution systems. Static pressure at any point is proportional to the height of water above it, remembering that pressure acts equally in all directions. In a pipe work system one can imagine the vertical pipe rise as effectively as column of water where the static pressure acting in all directions at the bottom of that pipe is proportional to the height of water above. Final calculation of the pressure in a system must add this static pressure to the dynamic pressure created by the circulating pump as it overcomes the frictional resistances within the pipe work system. Technical spaces at specific levels of the tower allow hydraulic separation of the water systems which allows these pressures to be controlled.

The pressure in a pipe work system must be within the safe operating pressure of the equipment and components used. Standard equipment and components are generally designed to operate at a maximum of 16 bar using PN16 pipe work and fittings.

• Sustainability

Tall building being a “Vertical Township” houses, large numbers of occupants, consumes huge amount of energy and water and generates large amount of waste. Therefore it is essential that a Sustainable design approach is adopted in building design.

Critical Aspects of Sustainability

It is important to adopt a Sustainable design approach in tall building development and to make the development cost and energy efficient. The development should be self sufficient to the extent possible in meeting its energy and water requirement and handling waste and thereby reducing burden on city utility infrastructure.

Sustainable design approach should involve:

Assessment of Existing Conditions

Existing conditions assessment around the development is required to ascertain the existing and planned infrastructure for-

• Regional Transportation networks

Power Supply and Distribution

• Gas

• Potable water supply, storage, distribution, treatment

• Sanitary Drainage and Treatment

• Storm Drainage, Harvesting

• Data, Telecom

• Lakes, Dams

Above assessment helps to understand how and to what extent the new development can be interfaced with the existing and planned infrastructure around the site.

Site and Climate Analysis

The objective of Site and Climate Analysis is to:

• Optimize Building Massing and Orientation to maximize Daylight to reduce electrical lighting load requirement; maximize Passive Ventilation to reduce Mechanical Ventilation requirement; and minimize Solar Gain and Maximize shading to reduce solar heat gain in the building and reducing building air-conditioning and ventilation load requirement.

• Explore Solar Water Heating Feasibility — Explore if solar radiation (direct and diffuse) is available in adequate quantity consistently throughout the year in the development for generating solar hot water and meet a part of development’s hot water requirement, being cost efficient.

• On site Power Generation (PV) — Explore if solar radiation (direct and diffuse) is available in adequate quantity consistently throughout the year in the development for generating solar power and meet a part of development’s energy requirement, being cost efficient.

• Rain Water Harvesting Feasibility — Analyze if rainfall is available in adequate intensity and quantity, consistently throughout the year in the development for harvesting rain water to meet full or part of the development’s potable or non potable requirement.

Goal Setting, Analysis, Development

Based on the outcome of Existing conditions assessment and Site and Climate Analysis around the development, site wide strategies for Sustainability, Integrated Energy, Integrated Water Management, Transportation, Waste Management and Telecommunication need to be established.

Approach to Design

The sustainable approach for a green building design is to be Mean, Lean and Green.

Minimize energy demand of the consumer; maximize system effiency and use renewable energy sources.

Case Study

Project Overview

• Project in Europe

• Tall Building

• Mixed Use Devel

opment- Hotel, Office, Atrium, Lobbies, Helipad

• LEED Platinum Building

• 170m high

• 42 stories

• 62,000 m2 Gross Built Area

The Key energy saving Features for the project are as follows:

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